Tuesday, January 8, 2019

Inductive Bible Study on Discipleship in Matthew 8-9 (Seminary Notes)

"Le Christ Bennissant" by Bernardino Luini
Louvre, Paris
Dear friends,

I thoroughly enjoyed my first semester at Asbury Theological Seminary (Orlando campus) this past fall, and I'm looking forward to three new classes starting in a few weeks.

One of the classes I took - and the one which drew me to seminary in the first place - was Inductive Bible Study (IBS) on Matthew. The whole goal is to be able to do an in-depth study of the text and glean directly from it. We learned how to survey passages of Scripture, break them down into units and sub-units, find major structures (recurrence of themes, cause and effect, generalization & specification, introduction to climax, etc.), make observations, and ask/answer interpretive questions. We also did word studies from Greek, as well as consulting commentaries after we had finished all of our own studies. The application phase is reserved for a more advanced IBS class. Unfortunately we did not have time to study every passage in Matthew. The weekly assignments were already quite time-consuming, taking anywhere from about 7 to 18 hours each. Now we know how to pick apart a passage and squeeze more insight out of it than we ever though possible.

A Facebook friend recently invited me to join an FB group to read through the four gospels this year. I thought that sounded like a good way to keep going, so I hit the button and now we're on Matthew 8. I recognized it as one of the passages I had studied during an Observation and Interpretation assignment. Since we had been invited to share our findings with the group, I figured I would dust off this assignment and post it to this blog.

Note that the study here is only part of a much larger process. I haven't done a structural analysis, nor an in-depth word study section. The Observation & Interpretation section is broken into three smaller sections, according to the three questions (ex. How Does One Become a Disciple?) posed by my professor, Dr. Brian Russell. The questions underneath them in parentheses (ex. What Are a Disciple’s Initial Experiences with Jesus?) are my paraphrases of Dr. Russell's questions. If I had not limited myself to these three assigned questions, I would have made many additional observations and interpretations, and I would have done the verses in order rather than by section. I'll try to post another study later on which has other features to it.

Far from being just an academic exercise, this assignment made me think deeply about what it means to be a disciple of Jesus. I hope that this blog post will spark that discovery in you as well.



Matthew 8:1-9:35
Observation and Interpretation
Theme: Discipleship



How Does One Become a Disciple?
(What Are a Disciple’s Initial Experiences with Jesus?)
Vs
Observation
Interpretation
8:1
The crowds followed Jesus when he came down from the mountain after his sermon.
Discipleship starts with the simple act of following, which may be within the context of a group of other interested people who don’t end up becoming disciples in the fullest sense. There are social factors in discipleship. In this case, it started first with hearing about Jesus (which prompted the gathering on the mount) and then hearing Jesus himself speak to the crowd.
8:2
The leper came individually and knelt before Jesus, calling him Lord and asking him for cleansing.
Following Jesus and becoming his disciple is not just as one of the crowd, but coming personally and reverently, expressing dependence and submission.
8:8
The Gentile centurion came to Jesus with a humble and reverent request, recognizing the power and authority of Jesus as Lord. He also related his own experiences with authority.
A disciple recognizes the power and authority of Jesus to change situations. A disciple naturally brings his/her own personal experiences that shape his/her perception of who Jesus is. Disciples each have their own way of relating to Jesus.
8:10-13
Jesus commended the Gentile centurion for his faith and declared that many would come from east and west to his banquet table, but  many who assumed they were of the kingdom would be thrown out.
Becoming a disciple also starts with faith in who Jesus is and what he can do. It is not based on being a member of the religious elite. It is available for all, no matter their national or ethnic background.
9:9
Jesus saw Matthew at the tax booth and commanded him to follow, which Matthew immediately did.
Becoming a disciple starts with responding to his call, preferably promptly. This also often means leaving other pursuits behind, which is evidence of placing Jesus as the top priority.
9:10-13
When questioned, Jesus said he came to call the sinners, not the righteous.
A disciple of Jesus does not start out as a righteous person, but as a sinner. Becoming a disciple is not based on already being a devout person. It only takes a sinner who knows his/her need for Jesus.

A key word in some of these verses is “follow.”
Following isn’t just about physically walking (or driving) behind someone. It is about heeding their instruction and example, and doing the things they do.

What Are the Requirements of Being a Disciple?
(What Does a Disciple Need to Be and Do?)
Vs
Observation
Interpretation
8:18
When Jesus saw great crowds around him, he gave orders to go over to the other side.
Jesus gives orders, and disciples must obey them. Discipleship often means pulling away from the big crowd to walk with Jesus. That doesn’t mean living as a solitary hermit though; the disciples were all with him, and each other, in the boat.
8:19-20
The scribe promised to follow Jesus wherever he went, but Jesus replied that the Son of Man had no place of his own, even to sleep.
A disciple must be willing to travel continually to places where he/she may not “belong” - and where there are few comforts. A disciple must be willing to not even have a settled home.
8:21-22
Another disciple said he wanted to go bury his father first, but Jesus told him to let the dead bury their own dead.
A disciple must be willing to leave behind family and its obligations, as necessary, to demonstrate the priority of following Jesus. I think I have read before that this verse doesn’t necessarily mean the father was already dead, but that the man wanted to wait until his father was dead and buried.
9:14-15
The disciples of John asked why the disciples of Jesus were not fasting. Jesus replied that they were like attendants celebrating with the bridegroom while he was with them, but that they would fast in mourning later when he wasn’t with them.
Sometimes disciples fast, and sometimes they don’t. This is not a rigid requirement. What is required is to be sensitive to the demands of the current situation, as when Ecclesiastes 3:4-5 says there is “a time to weep, and a time to laugh;
a time to mourn, and a time to dance.”

A key feature in some of these verses is immediate and unconditional obedience to the call and commands of Jesus.
A disciple is required to obey Jesus without excuse or delay.


What Does It Mean to Be a Disciple?
(What Kind of Experiences Can a Disciple Expect While Following Jesus?)
Vs
Observation
Interpretation
8:14-17
Jesus healed Peter’s mother-in-law and many other people (including those afflicted by demons and spirits) fulfilling the Isaiah prophecy: “He took our infirmities and bore our diseases.”
Being a disciple means knowing that Jesus cares about the disciple’s family members, but that this practical compassion goes way beyond circle into in the larger community. Being a disciple means being placed in the context of the prophetic tradition, and recognizing how Jesus fulfills predictions made about him as the Messiah.
8:18
When Jesus saw great crowds around him, he gave orders to go over to the other side.
Being a disciple means spending time with Jesus. Jesus was with his disciples in the boat, wanting to get away from the crowds. One might presume that this is because he wished to spend more intimate and in-depth time in fellowship with his committed disciples.
8:25
The disciples were distressed while they were in a boat in a storm while Jesus was asleep.
Being a disciple of Jesus means that he/she is sometimes put in uncomfortable situations where he/she doesn’t really know what is going on, but still needs to trust God and ask for help.
8:27
The disciples were amazed at the power which Jesus exercised over the wind and the waves.
Being of a disciple of Jesus often means feeling astonished to freshly discover who he is and what he can do.
8:28-34
The disciples watched two demoniacs confront Jesus. They witnessed him sending the demons into a herd of pigs who rushed into the lake to their death. They heard the horrified townspeople beg Jesus to leave.
Being a disciple of Jesus can mean encountering evil powers and watching Jesus overcome them. It means dealing with people who don’t understand or appreciate the work of God, and who place higher priority on material goods than the well-being of other people.

9:10
The disciples were with Jesus when he had dinner in a home with many tax collectors and sinners sitting with them.
Being a disciple of Jesus means being ready to meet and befriend people who live on the margins of society.
9:11
The Pharisees questioned the disciples about why Jesus would eat with tax collectors and sinners.
Being a disciple of Jesus means having to answer questions about Jesus from people who may be hostile and incredulous.
9:14
The disciples of John questioned Jesus about why his disciples were not fasting like them.
Being a disciple of Jesus means people asking questions, sometimes accusatory, about the nature of discipleship. The actions of disciples in following Jesus may not always measure up to the expectations of others who sincerely follow the same God from a different perspective.
9:15
Jesus’ disciples didn’t fast when he was with them, whereas they would mourn and fast later when he wasn’t with them.
Being a disciple of Jesus means that there are times for normal living and joy, and times for fasting and mourning. There is a lot of adjusting to situations.
9:16-17
When questioned about why his disciples did not fast, Jesus gave analogies about not sewing an unshrunk patch on an old cloak, and not pouring new wine into old wine skins.
Being a disciple has something to do with old and new. I believe there is an implication that being a disciple means that Jesus makes a fundamental change in the heart, and that what fit in with the disciple’s life before knowing Jesus won’t fit in any longer after becoming his disciple.
9:18-19
Jesus followed the synagogue ruler to his daughter, and the disciples went with him.
Being a disciple of Jesus means following him when he responsively and compassionately “follows” someone else. A disciple might have to go to (and with) others instead of expecting to stay in his/her own place.
9:35
Jesus traveled, taught, preached, and healed.
Being a disciple means participating in what Jesus is doing to minister to others.

Commentary Findings
Using the Strong’s Concordance, entry G3101, at Blue Letter Bible, I found that the word for disciple in Matthew 8-9 is mathētēs, which they define as “a learner, pupil, disciple.”  According to the Dictionary of Jesus and the Gospels,“... mathētēs ... designated adherents or followers who were committed to a recognized leader, teacher or movement.”
In reference to the two men who claimed to want to follow Jesus, R.T. France notes:In these two tantalizing scenes, therefore, we are reminded of the grey area which existed between the uncommitted “crowd” (cf. 5:1; 7:28–29) and the fully-committed Twelve, an area which will be further delineated in the range of responses set out in the parable of the sower (13:3–8, 18–23).”
Both R. T. France and Anna Case-Winters addressed the issue of whether the would-be disciple’s father was dead yet. France acknowledges that it was a possibility, but also countered that “If the father had just died, the son could hardly be out at the roadside with Jesus; his place was to be keeping vigil and preparing for the funeral. Rather, to “bury one’s father” is standard idiom for fulfilling one’s filial responsibilities responsibilities for the remainder of the father’s lifetime, with no prospect of his imminent death.”
Case-Winters, on the other hand, is more prepared to accept the man’s words at face value: “Left to stand as it is, the story lays bare the radical demands of discipleship… One must be willing to give up ‘home and security and family obligations’ to leave it all behind and cross over to the other side.” She also comments on discipleship in reference to the boat story: “This perilous crossing is a harbinger of things to come. The way will be stormy, but Jesus will be with them. The promise of Jesus’ presence and authority over storms was a needed word.” Finally, she also notes: “Tax collectors were assumed to be thieves as well as collaborators, collecting more than was required and profiting from the power of their positions… Yet here is Jesus calling Matthew the tax-collector to follow him. Jesus is calling sinners to be disciples (9:13).”
Commentary References:
Dictionary of Jesus and the Gospels (The IVP Bible Dictionary Series) (p. 203). InterVarsity Press.
France, R. T.. The Gospel of Matthew (The New International Commentary on the New Testament) (p. 324-330). Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co.
Case-Winters, Anna. Matthew (Belief: a Theological Commentary on the Bible) (p.149-152), Westminster John Knox Press.

Synthesis
Becoming a disciple is a matter of believing and following Jesus, recognizing his deity, his power, and his authority. It does not require that a person be righteous to come to him, as he says he came for sinners. He proved that by calling Matthew, a despised tax collector, as well as commending the faith of the Gentile centurion over against many who would claim to be sons of the kingdom. The requirements of discipleship are acknowledging the priority of Jesus over all other claims, and obeying him fully and promptly. A disciple’s life may involve uncomfortable, awkward, and risky situations. They will at times have to lay aside other priorities, including family, in obedience to Christ. They will be mocked and interrogated. They will encounter evil powers. They will learn to embrace marginalized people. They will have to adjust their actions and demeanor based on circumstances. Most of all disciples can expect to be continually astonished by the compassion, the healing presence, and the power and authority of Jesus.


Tuesday, November 6, 2018

You Can Make This Holiday Season a Little Merrier for Others




Dear friends,

I've been thinking lately, as so many of you have, about how many people are in survival mode during the holidays. I'm not talking about how they have just crammed their schedules too busy or they are running around trying to buy all of their feast ingredients and gifts in time. I am talking about real survival mode: they don't have enough food to eat, decent clothes to wear, proper medical attention, maybe even a roof over their heads. Or they might be struggling through chronic pain or handicaps - physical, emotional, and or spiritual. They might be afflicted with mental illness. They might just be lonely or anxious, or grieving the loss of loved ones.

Think through the people you know, or even those whom you don't know yet. What are they going through right now?

Where are they? In a Third World country around the globe from you, on the streets downtown, in a decent enough home down the street from you, or, chances are, they might be living at your house. This might be you.

What can you do? How can you help make the holiday season a little merrier for someone else?
  • Invite an international student or someone else who has no local family over for a holiday meal, even if it is not right on Thanksgiving or Christmas Day. How about hosting a Friendsgiving this year to give everyone a chance to gather for food, fun, and friendly conversation? 
  • Talk to a lonely friend. A cup of tea? A listening ear for sure. Listen, don't lecture.
  • Watch what you say to people, especially among those whom you don't know really, really well. You might make a critical comment about "other people's problems" (such as substance abuse, financial issues, family crisis, mental illness, etc.) not realizing that those in your presence are affected by it too. You don't always know what someone is going through, and if you are throwing off negative vibes, you can be sure they won't be eager to tell you about it, unless it is to tell you off for being insensitive. :-(
  • Offer to watch a friends' kids so their stressed out parent(s) (especially a single mom or dad) can go out for some alone time, a date with a hubby or friend, or a holiday party. 
  • Take a fancy casserole, a pumpkin pie, or a plate of Christmas cookies to a shut in. Be sure to ask about food restrictions if they have health issues. Maybe you could reduce salt in your meats and side dishes, and use stevia instead of sugar for your baked goods.
  • Sing Christmas carols at a nursing home. 
  • Write letters or make cards for (or with) elderly relatives or neighbors. Add pictures that your kids have made.
  • Throw a Christmas craft party for neighbor kids. Provide all of the supplies for projects for various ages and interests. Make sure you serve lots of yummy snacks! And tell them about Jesus. Yes, tell them about Jesus.
  • Go serve the Thanksgiving or Christmas meal at the homeless shelter. 
  • Donate non-perishable foods or gift cards to a food drive. 
  • Pick out gifts for a needy someone in your community. (Ask your pastor for the names of needy folks or worthy organizations.) 
  • Be a Secret Santa and drop a bag of goodies or presents off on a doorstep of someone you know. Don't know what to buy? A gift card to Walmart or Target is always appreciated so they can buy for their own kids. And then maybe a Starbucks or Panera gift card so they can stop for a hot drink or a snack while they're out shopping.
  • Harvest of Hope with Partners International - gift catalog of items you can order to be sent to impoverished people around the world. Piglets anyone? Or how about medicine, or school supplies, or clean water, or therapy for a disabled child? There are plenty of options to fit your budget and get your kids involved!
Blessings,
Virginia Knowles

Note: This is an edited repost from 2012.


Wednesday, October 3, 2018

Domestic Violence: What to Know and What to Do


Dear friends!

October is Domestic Violence Awareness Month! Tomorrow evening, I am speaking at a small church (in a home) about how Christians can respond to domestic violence victims. To help prepare for that, I decided to update this list of my own blog posts on the topic (the blue and gray links), as well as other related web links (the brown links). 

I hope that this post will give you resources and courage to help yourself or someone else find safety and sanity. Please know that my heart and prayers are with you. I would be delighted to hear from you, so feel free to e-mail me.

If you are using a computer that others also use, and you need to visit web pages discretely for safety's sake, please stop for a moment consider whether you can proceed without undue risk. You may try using an incognito browser, but if somebody has placed keystroke tracking software on your computer, you are still at risk. Consider going to a friend's house or a public library to use a different computer.


On this page you will find links to articles on my own blogs and other sites, phone numbers, books, and Central Florida domestic violence centers. Please note that I do not endorse everything at these sites or by these organizations. I trust that you will use your own discretion. Also please note that many of the links within the blog posts may be obsolete, but the ones on this page should work.

Please realize that though I am using the phrase "domestic violence" in the blog post title, there are many more forms of domestic abuse beyond physical violence. These include coercion & threats, intimidation, emotional abuse (which includes spiritual abuse), isolation, minimizing / denying / blaming, using children, male privilege, and economic abuse.








It is also important to note that even if a situation seems calm at a given moment, there may still be a continuing "cycle of violence." It's not the abuse stops, but that the outward forms of it go dormant for a while. It is still an abusive relationship that can escalate at any time.






The sections in this blog post:

  • Phone Numbers
  • Domestic Abuse in Christian Marriages
  • Domestic Violence Basics
  • Practical Help & Safety Planning
  • Counseling & the Psychology of Abuse
  • How Christians & Churches Can Help Abuse Victims, Promote Mutual Respect, and Empower Women
  • Dating Violence
  • Domestic Violence and Children
  • Central Florida Resources



Phone Numbers
  • National Domestic Violence Hotline: (800)799-7233
  • USA Domestic Abuse Hotline: (800)999-SAFE


Domestic Abuse in Christian Marriages


Counseling & the Psychology of Abuse


How Christians & Churches Can 
Help Abuse Victims,
Promote Mutual Respect,
and Empower Women
Central Florida Resources 

  • Safe House of Seminole: A confidential shelter for victims of domestic violence and their children, includes counseling, practical support, legal help, etc. 
  • Harbor House (Orange County): Shelter for victims of domestic violence, includes counseling, practical support, legal help, etc. 
  • Elizabeth House: Faith-based transitional home in Seminole County where victims and their children can stay for several months and receive supportive services.
  • Kids House of Seminole Children's Advocacy Center: Help for families dealing with child abuse; friendly, non-threatening atmosphere; includes counseling, support, information on resources, referrals for substance abuse treatment, etc.
  • Heart of Florida United Way 211: Extensive database of human services available in central Florida, such as financial assistance, shelters, counseling, etc. You can also dial 211 to get this information and a listening ear over the phone. (Note: I am an employee in the 211 call center.)